+254 (0) 728 284187 [email protected]

States of mental wellbeing, emotional strength, and psychosocial well-being are also referred to as mental health; this is the end of the spectrum that we want to be on. Mental health disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and significant depression are greatly influenced by nature. Genetics, however, is not the only cause of this. Genetic and environmental factors can contribute to mental problems. The environment has a significant role in the emergence of mental illnesses. Scientists have demonstrated that psychiatric diseases are hereditary and have possible antecedents. To assist them in correctly diagnosing their patients, doctors ask patients with a family history of mental health disorders. Politics, television viewing habits, and divorce rates all appear to be influenced by heredity, despite the fact that some psychological traits—such as personality or mental illness—such as schizophrenia—seem to be largely influenced by genetics (Plomin, Corley, DeFries, & Fulker, 1990) (McGue & Lykken, 1992). 

The association of biological factors that affect the development of mental health disorders:

Anxiety, obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and severe depressive disorder are 20–45% inherited. ADHD, schizophrenia, bipolar illness, and the autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are 75% genetically predisposed. Alcoholism and anorexia nervosa are inherited to a 50–60% degree.

According to the percentage contribution mentioned above, mental disorders are not entirely inherited. indicating that both nature and nurture have an impact on mental wellness.

Distinction between nature and nurture 

Genetics, hormones, and features that affect human behavior, physical appearance, and even disease are all considered to be a part of nature. The definition of nurture includes things like the environment, impacts on childhood, social interactions, upbringing, culture, and experiences that have an impact on a person. Both have an effect on different facets of a person and contribute to the emergence of mental disorders. There is no genetic switch that can prevent the development of a mental problem; rather, mental disorders are the product of combined genetic and environmental influences. Despite the fact that natural causes account for the genesis of anomalies, this does not indicate that you cannot also develop diseases.

Several aspects of your life are within your control, such as inherited genes that produce mental diseases and which would not manifest if not for environmental triggers. The information in this text that can cause mental health disorders, such as trauma, stress, emotional disturbance, substance misuse, and traumatic life experiences, is of utmost importance. Epigenetic control, genetic polymorphisms, and environmental impacts are among the genetic variables that might cause mental disease. Counselors may use one of two therapeutic modalities to help their patients: either nature-based or nurture-based therapy, which focuses on a person’s beliefs, attitudes, and experiences, or nurture-based therapy, which seeks solutions to mental health issues on a genetic or biological level.Talk therapy is used to address a person’s emotions associated to their upbringing and experiences, whereas medications that treat mental health problems are thought of as using a nature-based approach. Nature and nurture theories are combined with other important elements in cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).

parenting style as an etiology to child’s abnormality 

A child’s growth and development, both physically and psychologically, depend heavily on their parents. Positive (or secure) attachment styles have been associated with vigor, emotional stability, and friendliness, whereas negative attachment styles have been associated with mental illnesses like depression, anxiety, conduct disorder, emotional instability, and other problems. Studies have revealed a substantial correlation between the likelihood that an adolescent child will also have the same or additional psychiatric illnesses as their parents, who are viewed as their children’s role models. All parenting philosophies, with the exception of authoritarian, have been linked to, and in some cases have substantial positive relationships with, a variety of mental diseases, such as conduct disorder, emotional disorders, hyperkinetic disorders, and antisocial disorder. Permissive, authoritative, neglectful, and authoritarian are the four basic parenting styles recognized in contemporary child psychology.

These styles are based on the work of Stanford scholars Eleanor Maccoby and John Martin, as well as Diana Baumrind. Parental disruption is linked to a weaker sense of self, rejection, overprotection, and increased mental health issues. The scale, which measures core parenting approaches as seen in participants’ own childhoods, has two dimensions: care and overprotection. The authoritative parenting approach combines limitations and boundaries together with encouragement and support. Healthy love is both communicated and reciprocally exchanged, and two-way communication is encouraged.

Children who grow up with strong parental role models are more likely to be independent, self-sufficient, accepted by others, academically competent, and well-behaved. When parents interact with their children seldom or not at all, this is known as a Neglectful Parenting Style (NPS). This personality type is more likely to have behavioral disorders, conduct disorders, and anxiety disorders such as obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The indulgent parenting style (IPS) is when parents are actively involved in their adolescent’s life, yet they have no restrictions on what they can or cannot do. Although they perform worse in school and are more prone to engage in negative conduct, people in this style have higher self-esteem, better social skills, and lower depression rates.

Psychoeducation on parenting of an adolescent child 

Parents’ and guardians’ psychoeducation is crucial in shaping how teenagers deal with the various forces that influence their development. It gives truthful information and introduces parents to therapeutic techniques that are efficient in dealing with teenagers. Parents who receive psychoeducation on the risk of psychopathology developing are more likely to seek help before symptoms appear and their teenager won’t experience worry or depression. In a child who has already had excellent connection experience, standardization later in youth isn’t actually harmful. Parents and adolescent children can find healing and understanding by receiving psychoeducation on parenting methods and the effects they may have on children.

Parents who receive psychoeducation can better prioritize parenting and engage with the lives of their adolescent children. Parenting that is lavish is marked by creativity and confidence, while parenting that is negligent is marked by neither. When it comes to promoting a young person’s healthy, normative development of autonomy, authoritative parenting has been shown to be the most beneficial. It is associated with adolescents’ socially competent behavior. Parents who have received psychoeducation can better comprehend this goal and how to attain it. When it comes to promoting the healthy normative development of autonomy in children, authoritative parenting has been demonstrated to be the most advantageous.

CONCLUSION

Nurture, which encompasses upbringing, environment-related influences, experiences, and relationships, plays a big part in a person’s mental health. Some people may develop substance abuse due to an accumulation of problems and a lack of coping skills, while others develop post-traumatic stress disorder due to traumatic experiences. The family history of mental health disorders has a connection to the development of mental illnesses, but life events and experiences have the greatest influence. Parents who possess a current mental illness show a high probability of their children having the same and in some cases additional psychopathologies. Mothers with mental illnesses in conjunction with a permissive parenting style often result in depression and anxiety in their children. Conduct disorder in parents using non-physical punishment have been highly correlated with all adolescent psychopathology.

References

 Brook, J., Balka, E., Fei, K., & Whiteman, M. (2006). The effects of parental tobacco and marijuana use and personality attributes on child rearing in African-American and Puerto Rican young adults. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 15(2).

Ewing DL, Dash S, Thompson EJ, Hazell CM, Hughes Z, Lester KJ, Cartwright-Hatton S. No Significant Evidence of Cognitive Biases for Emotional Stimuli in Children At-Risk of Developing Anxiety Disorders. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2016 Oct;44(7):1243-52. doi: 10.1007/s10802-015-0122-8. PMID: 26747448; PMCID: PMC5007265.

Gordon Parker, Hilary Tupling, L. B. Brown  – 1979 A Parental Bonding Instrument – First published: March 1979 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8341.1979.tb02487.x

Hoeve, M., Blokland, A., Semon Dubas, J., Loeber, R., Gerris, J., & van der Laan, P. (2008). Trajectories of delinquency and parenting styles. Abnormal Psychology. 36, 223-235.

Laird, R., Marrero, M., & Sentse, M. (2010). Revisiting Parental Monitoring: Evidence that Parental Solicitation Can Be Effective when Needed Most. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(12), 1431-1441. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Moilanen, K., Shaw, D., & Fitzpatrick, A. (2010). Self-Regulation in Early Adolescence: Relations with Mother-Son Relationship Quality and Maternal Regulatory Support and Antagonism. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 39(11), 1357-1367. Retrieved from ERIC database.

Murray, J., & Farrington, D. (2005). Parental imprisonment: effects on boys’ antisocial behaviour and delinquency through the life-course. Journal Of Child Psychology And Psychiatry, And Allied Disciplines, 46(12), 1269-1278. Retrieved from MEDLINE with Full Text database.

McGue, M., & Lykken, D. T. (1992). Genetic Influence on Risk of Divorce. Psychological Science, 3(6), 368–373. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.1992.tb00049.x

Nishikawa, S., Sundbom, E., & Ha¨gglo¨f, B. (2010). Influence of Perceived Parental Rearing on Adolescent Self-Concept and Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Japan. J. Child Family Study, 19, 57-66.

Plomin, R., Corley, R., DeFries, J. C., & Fulker, D. W. (1990). Individual differences in television viewing in early childhood: Nature as well as nurture. Psychological Science, 1(6), 371-377.

Rodríguez, D. M., Donovick, M., & Crowley, S. (2009). Parenting styles in a cultural context: observations of “protective parenting” in first-generation Latinos. Family Process, 48(2), 195-210. Retrieved from MEDLINE with Full Text database.

Roelofs, J., Meesters, C., ter Huurne, M., Lotte Bamelis, Sc., M., & Muris, P. (2006). On the links between attachment style, parental rearing behaviors, and internalizing and externalizing problems in non-clinical children. Social Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol, 41, 509-514.

Rutter, M. (1990). Psychosocial Resilience and Protective Mechanisms. In J. Rolf, A. S. Masten, D. Cicchetti, K. H. Nuechterlein, & S. Weintraub (Eds.), Risk and Protective Factors in the Development of Psychopathology (pp. 181-214). New York: Cambridge University Press. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511752872.013

Santrack J. (2008, p. 284).Parenting Styles and Psychopathology, 

Santrock, J. (2008). Adolescence (12th Ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.

Surcinelli, P., Rossi, N., Montebarocci, O., & Baldaro, B. (2010). Adult attachment styles and psychological disease: Examining the mediating role of personality traits. The Journal of Psychology, 144(6), 523-534.

Vostanis, P., Graves, A., Meltzer, H., Goodman, R., Jenkins, R., & Brugha, T. (2006). Relationship between parental psychopathology, parenting strategies and child mental health. Social Psychiatry Psychiatr Epemiol, 41, 509-514.